PISA 2012 is designed to be as inclusive as possible. The guidelines allowed schools to be excluded for approved reasons (for example, schools in remote regions, very small schools, or special education schools). Schools used the following international guidelines on student exclusions:
Students with functional disabilities. These were students with a moderate to severe permanent physical disability such that they cannot perform in the PISA testing environment.
Students with intellectual disabilities. These were students with a mental or emotional disability and who have been tested as cognitively delayed or who are considered in the professional opinion of qualified staff to be cognitively delayed such that they cannot perform in the PISA testing environment.
Students with insufficient language experience. These were students who meet the three criteria of not being native speakers in the assessment language, having limited proficiency in the assessment language, and having less than 1 year of instruction in the assessment language.
Overall estimated exclusions (including both school and student exclusions) were to be under 5 percent of the PISA target population.
|United Arab Emirates||17%|
Top scorer Shanghai missed 21%, so we should take its flashy scores with a few grains of salt.
America was at 11% missing, down from 18% missing in 2009, which may account for the slight decline in U.S. scores?
Consistent high-flier Finland had only 4% missing, so they aren't cheating on this measure more than the competition is.