National Data | Chart | If We Need Immigrant PhDs, Why Are American PhDs Poor And Unemployed?

Table 1

Doctorates Awarded  in Science and Engineering by Citizenship Status, 1987-2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

Science and Engineering, total

 

 

 

Year

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

18,523

12,966

5,557

30.0%

1990

21,935

14,167

7,768

35.4%

1995

25,990

15,487

10,503

40.4%

1996

26,456

15,638

10,818

40.9%

1997

25,906

16,116

9,790

37.8%

1998

26,033

16,238

9,795

37.6%

1999

24,806

15,914

8,892

35.8%

2000

24,766

15,701

9,065

36.6%

2001

24,287

15,055

9,232

38.0%

2002

23,152

14,313

8,839

38.2%

 

Sciences, total

 

 

 

 

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

15,078

11,408

3,670

24.3%

1990

17,312

12,210

5,102

29.5%

1995

20,124

13,101

7,023

34.9%

1996

20,344

13,042

7,302

35.9%

1997

20,019

13,377

6,642

33.2%

1998

20,406

13,672

6,734

33.0%

1999

19,724

13,428

6,296

31.9%

2000

19,746

13,481

6,265

31.7%

2001

19,063

12,915

6,148

32.3%

2002

18,346

12,423

5,923

32.3%

 

Engineering, total

 

 

 

 

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

3,445

1,558

1,887

54.8%

1990

4,623

1,957

2,666

57.7%

1995

5,866

2,386

3,480

59.3%

1996

6,112

2,596

3,516

57.5%

1997

5,887

2,739

3,148

53.5%

1998

5,627

2,566

3,061

54.4%

1999

5,082

2,486

2,596

51.1%

2000

5,020

2,220

2,800

55.8%

2001

5,224

2,140

3,084

59.0%

2002

4,806

1,890

2,916

60.7%

 

 

 

 

 

a. Total for  whom citizenship is known.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doctorates Awarded in Science and

 

 

 

 

Engineering by Citizenship Status, 1993-2002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Science and Engineering, total

 

 

 

Year

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

 

 

 

 

1990

 

 

 

 

1993

24,687

14,933

9,754

39.50%

1994

25,708

15,168

10,540

41.00%

1995

25,990

15,487

10,503

40.40%

1996

26,456

15,638

10,818

40.90%

1997

25,906

16,116

9,790

37.80%

1998

26,033

16,238

9,795

37.60%

1999

24,806

15,914

8,892

35.80%

2000

24,766

15,701

9,065

36.60%

2001

24,287

15,055

9,232

38.00%

2002

23,152

14,313

8,839

38.20%

 

Sciences, total

 

 

 

 

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

 

 

 

 

1990

 

 

 

 

1993

19,206

12,705

6,501

33.80%

1994

20,001

12,951

7,050

35.20%

1995

20,124

13,101

7,023

34.90%

1996

20,344

13,042

7,302

35.90%

1997

20,019

13,377

6,642

33.20%

1998

20,406

13,672

6,734

33.00%

1999

19,724

13,428

6,296

31.90%

2000

19,746

13,481

6,265

31.70%

2001

19,063

12,915

6,148

32.30%

2002

18,346

12,423

5,923

32.30%

 

Engineering, total

 

 

 

 

Total (a)

U.S. Citizens

Non-U.S. Citizens

% Non-U.S. Citizens

1987

 

 

 

 

1990

 

 

 

 

1993

5,481

2,228

3,253

59.40%

1994

5,707

2,217

3,490

61.20%

1995

5,866

2,386

3,480

59.30%

1996

6,112

2,596

3,516

57.50%

1997

5,887

2,739

3,148

53.50%

1998

5,627

2,566

3,061

54.40%

1999

5,082

2,486

2,596

51.10%

2000

5,020

2,220

2,800

55.80%

2001

5,224

2,140

3,084

59.00%

2002

4,806

1,890

2,916

60.70%

 

 

 

 

 

a. Total for  whom citizenship is known.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2

Unemployment Rates in Science and Engineering, 1983-2002

       

(Percent of Workforce Unemployed)

 

 

 

 

Science and

Computer

All U.S.

Year

Engineering

Programmers

Workers

1983

3.0

3.1

9.9

1984

2.1

1.4

7.4

1985

1.8

2.0

7.0

1986

2.2

2.4

6.9

1987

2.2

3.1

6.2

1988

1.8

3.0

5.5

1989

1.5

1.5

5.2

1990

1.9

3.1

5.7

1991

2.6

3.5

7.2

1992

3.2

2.9

7.9

1993

3.5

2.8

7.2

1994

3.0

2.5

6.2

1995

2.3

1.5

5.6

1996

1.8

1.2

5.4

1997

1.5

1.9

4.9

1998

1.6

1.6

4.4

1999

1.4

2.6

4.1

2000

1.6

1.7

3.9

2001

2.4

5.1

4.8

2002

3.9

6.5

5.8

 

 

 

 

Source: National Science Foundation, Science & Engineering Indicators 2004, Figure 3-7.

 

 

 

Edwin S. Rubenstein (email him) is President of ESR Research Economic Consultants in Indianapolis.